Android versions

android

Global Android version distribution since December 2009. As of August 2016, Android Lollipop (5.0 – 5.1) is the single most widely used Android version, operating on 35.5% of all Android devices accessing Google Play. The second is Android KitKat (4.4), with a share of 29.2%.

The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android alpha in November 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and has seen a number of

updates to its base operating system since the initial release.

Versions 1.0 and 1.1 were not released under specific code names, but since April 2009’s Android 1.5 “Cupcake”, Android versions have had confectionery -themed code names. Each is in alphabetical order, with the most recent being Android 7.0 “Nougat”, released in August 2016. [1]

Code name Version number

Initial release date

API level

N/A

1.0

23 September 2008

1

1.1 9 February 2009 2

Cupcake 1.5 27 April 2009 3

Donut 1.6

15 September 2009

4

Eclair 2.0 – 2.1 26 October 2009 5–7

Froyo 2.2 – 2.2.3

20 May 2010 8

Gingerbread 2.3 – 2.3.7

6 December 2010 9–10

Honeycomb 3.0 – 3.2.6

22 February 2011

11–13

Ice Cream Sandwich

4.0 – 4.0.4

18 October 2011

14–15

Jelly Bean 4.1 – 4.3.1 9 July 2012 16–18

KitKat 4.4 – 4.4.4

31 October 2013

19–20

Lollipop 5.0 – 5.1.1

12 November 2014

21–22

Marshmallow 6.0 – 6.0.1

5 October 2015 23

Nougat 7.0 22 August 2016 24

Pre-commercial release versions

The development of Android started in 2003 by Android, Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005. [2]

Alpha

There were at least two internal releases of the software inside Google and the OHA before the beta version was released in November 2007. For the milestones in internal releases, names of fictional robots were chosen, with various releases code-named ” Astro Boy”,” Bender ” and ” R2-D2 “. [3][4][5]

Dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current green Android logo was designed by Irina Blok. [6] The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived the confectionery-themed naming scheme that has been used for the majority of the public releases, starting with Android 1.5 “Cupcake”.

Beta

The beta was released on November 5, 2007, [7]

[8] while the software development kit (SDK) was released on November 12, 2007. [9] The November 5 date is popularly celebrated as Android’s “birthday”. [10] Public beta versions of the SDK were released in the following order:

[11]

November 12, 2007: m3-rc20a (milestone 3, release code 20a) [12]

November 16, 2007: m3-rc22a (milestone 3, release code 22a) [13]

December 14, 2007: m3-rc37a (milestone 3, release code 37a) [14]

February 13, 2008: m5-rc14 (milestone 5, release code 14) [15]

March 3, 2008: m5-rc15 (milestone 5, release code 15) [11]

August 18, 2008: 0.9 [16][17]

September 23, 2008: 1.0-r1 [18][19]

Version history by API level

The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface (API) levels.

Android 1.0 (API level 1)

Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on September 23, 2008. [20] The first commercially available Android device was the HTC Dream .[21] Android 1.0 incorporated the following features:

Version Release date Features Image(s)

1.0 September 23, 2008

Android Market allowed application downloads and updates through the Market application

Web browser to show, zoom and pan full

HTML and

XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows (“cards”) [22]

[23]

Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera’s resolution, white balance, quality, etc. [24]

Folders allowing the grouping of a number of application icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen

[25]

Access to web email servers, supporting

POP3 , IMAP4 , and SMTP [23]

Gmail synchronization with the Gmail application

Google Contacts synchronization with the People application

Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar application

Google Maps with Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and obtain driving directions using GPS [24]

Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar

Google Search , allowing users to search the Internet and phone applications, contacts, calendar, etc.

Google Talk instant messaging

Instant messaging ,

text messaging , and MMS

Media Player , enabling management, importing, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo

Bluetooth support [23][24]

Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration alerts [22][23]

[26]

Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number [23]

Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets

YouTube video player

[27]

Other applications include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings

Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support

Image unavailable

Android 1.1 (API level 2)

On February 9, 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as ” Petit Four ” internally, though this name was not used officially.[28] The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API and added a number of features: [29]

Version Release date Features Image(s)

1.1 February 9, 2009

Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps

Longer in-call screen timeout default when using the speakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dialpad

Ability to save attachments in messages

Support added for marquee in system layouts

Image unavailable

Android 1.5 Cupcake (API lev

On April 27, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27. [30][31] This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item (“Cupcake” theme which would be used for all releases henceforth. The update included several new features and UI amendments: [32]

Version Release date Features Im

1.5 April 27, 2009 [30]

Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and user dictionary for custom words

Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates [33]

Video recording and playback in

MPEG-4 and 3GP formats

Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles)

Copy and paste features in web browser

User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts

Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from call log event

Animated screen transitions

Auto-rotation option

New stock boot animation

Ability to upload videos to

YouTube

Ability to upload photos to

Picasa

Android 1.5 Ho

Android 1.6 Donut (API lev

On September 15, 2009, the Android 1.6 SDK dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. [34][35][36] Included in the updat were numerous new features: [34]

Version Release date Features

1.6 September 15, 2009 [35]

Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web

Ability for developers to include their content in search results

Multi-lingual

speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to “speak” a string of text

Easier searching and ability to view app screenshots in Android Market

Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access

Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion

Updated technology support for

CDMA/EVDO ,

802.1x , VPNs , and a text-to-speech engine

Support for

WVGA screen resolutions

Speed improvements in searching and camera applications

Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder development tool

Android 1.6

Android 2.0 Eclair (API leve

On October 26, 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29 and codenamed Eclair.[37] Changes include the on listed below. [38]

Version Release date Features

2.0 October 26, 2009

Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of email and contacts

Microsoft Exchange email support, with combined inbox to browse email from multiple accounts in one page

Bluetooth 2.1 support

Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person

Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with delete oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached

Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus

Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter dictionary that learns from word usage and includes contact names as suggestions

Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and support for

HTML5

Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and ability to invite new guests to events

Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI

Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio

Improved

Google Maps 3.1.2

MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events

[39]

Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movement

Android 2.0

Android 2.0.1 Eclair (API leve

Version Release date Features Im

2.0.1 December 3, 2009 [40]

Minor API changes, bugfixes and framework behavioral changes

Android 2.0 Ho

Android 2.1 Eclair (API level

Version Release date Features I

2.1 January 12, 2010 [41]

Minor amendments to the API and bugfixes

Android 2.1 Ho

Android 2.2 Froyo (API lev

On May 20, 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Fro short for frozen yogurt ) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32. [42]

Version Release date Features

2.2 May 20, 2010

Speed, memory, and performance optimizations

[43]

Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation [44]

Integration of Chrome ‘s

V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application

Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, enabling push notifications

Improved

Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe

Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications

USB tethering and

Wi-Fi hotspot functionality

[45]

Option to disable data access over mobile network

Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features [43]

Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries

Support for

Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks

Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords

Support for file upload fields in the Browser application[46]

The browser now shows all frames of animated GIFs instead of just the first frame only

Support for installing applications to the expandable memory

Adobe Flash support [47]

Support for high- PPI displays (up to 320 ppi), such as four-inch

720p screens

[48]

Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture

Android 2.

2.2.1 January 18, 2011

Bugfixes, security updates and performance improvements

2.2.2 January 22, 2011

Minor bugfixes, including SMS routing issues that affected the Nexus One

[49]

2.2.3 November 21, 2011 [50]

Two security updates

Android 2.3 Gingerbread (API

On December 6, 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linu kernel 2.6.35. [51][52] Changes included: [51]

Version Release date Features

2.3 December 6, 2010 [52]

Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed

Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions ( WXGA and higher) [48]

Native support for SIP

VoIP internet telephony

Faster, more intuitive text input in virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode

Enhanced

copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press-hold, copy, and paste

Support for

Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement

New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost

New

Download Manager , giving users easy access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application

Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available

Support for

WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding

Improved

power management with a more active role in managing applications that are keeping the device awake for too long

Enhanced support for native code development

Switched from YAFFS to

ext4 on newer devices [53][54]

Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers

Concurrent

garbage collection for increased performance

Native support for more sensors (such as

gyroscopes and

barometers)

Android 2.

2.3.1 December 2010 Improvements and bugfixes for the Nexus S 2.3.2 January 2011

Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread (API

Version Release date Features

2.3.3 February 9, 2011

Several improvements and API fixes

[55]

Android 2.3

2.3.4 April 28, 2011 [56]

Support for voice or video chat using

Google Talk

[57]

Open Accessory Library support. Open Accessory was introduced in 3.1 (Honeycomb) but the Open Accessory Library grants 2.3.4 added support when connecting to a USB peripheral with compatible software and a compatible application on the device [58]

Switched the default encryption for SSL from AES256-SHA to RC4-MD5.

[59][60]

2.3.5 July 25, 2011

Improved network performance for the Nexus S 4G, among other fixes and improvements

Fixed Bluetooth bug on Samsung Galaxy S

Improved Gmail application

Shadow animations for list scrolling

Camera software enhancements

[61]

Improved battery efficiency

2.3.6 September 2, 2011 [62]

Fixed a voice search bug [a]

2.3.7 September 21, 2011

Google Wallet support for the Nexus S 4G

Android 3.0 Honeycomb (

On February 22, 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first tablet -only Androi update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36. [65][66][67][68] The first device featurin this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on February 24, 2011. [69] The update’ features included: [65]

Version Release date Features

3.0 February 22, 2011 [67]

Optimized tablet support with a new “holographic” user interface

Added System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen

Added Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen

Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Applications in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one application to another

Redesigned keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes

Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface

Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto-fill and a new “incognito” mode allowing anonymous browsing

Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera features

Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos

New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts

New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages

Hardware acceleration

Support for multi-core processors

Ability to encrypt all user data

HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication (SNI)

Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE; kernel module)

Disallows applications from having write access to secondary storage (memory cards on devices with internal primary storage) outside of designated, application-specific directories. Full access to primary internal storage is still allowed through a separate application-level permission.

[70][71]

Android 3.0 H

Android 3.1 Honeycomb (A

Version Release date Features

3.1 May 10, 2011 [72]

UI refinements

Connectivity for USB accessories ( USB On-The-Go ).

Expanded Recent Applications list

Resizable Home screen widgets

Support for external keyboards and pointing devices

Support for joysticks and gamepads

Support for FLAC audio playback [73]

[74]

High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when device screen is off

Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point

Android 3.1 Ho

Android 3.2 Honeycomb

Most first- and second-generation Google TV-enabled devices used Honeycomb 3.2. [75]

Version Release date Features

3.2 July 15, 2011 [76]

Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets

Increased ability of applications to access files on the SD card, e.g. for synchronization

Compatibility display mode for applications that have not been optimized for tablet screen resolutions

New display support functions, giving developers more control over display appearance on different Android devices[77]

Android 3.

3.2.1 September 20, 2011

Bugfixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements

Update to

Android Market with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Conditions text

Update to

Google Books

Improved

Adobe Flash support in browser

Improved

Chinese handwriting prediction

3.2.2 August 30, 2011

Bugfixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G

3.2.3 Bugfixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G

3.2.4 December 2011

“Pay as You Go” support [clarify ] for 3G and 4G tablets

3.2.5 January 2012

Bugfixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G

3.2.6 February 2012

Fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom

Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich (

The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwic based on Linux kernel 3.0.1, [78] was publicly released on October 19, 2011. [79] Google’s Ga Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was “theoreticall compatible” with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time. [80] The source code f Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011. [81] Ice Cream Sandwich was the last version to officially support Adobe Systems ‘ Fla player . [82] The update introduced numerous n features: [83][84][85]

Version Release date Features

4.0 October 18, 2011 [83]

Major refinements to the “Holo” interface with new Roboto font family

Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for use on phones

Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar manner to applications

Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style

Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages

Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar

Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)

Improved error correction on the keyboard

Ability to access applications directly from

lock screen

Improved copy and paste functionality

Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech to text dictation

Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software

Automatic syncing of browser with users’ Chrome bookmarks

Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded

Ability to shut down applications from the recent apps list with a swipe [86]

Improved camera application with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording

Built-in photo editor

New gallery layout, organized by location and person

Refreshed “People” application with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images

Android Beam, a near-field communication feature allowing the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data

Support for the WebP image format

[73]

Hardware acceleration of the UI[87]

Wi-Fi Direct

[88]

1080p video recording for stock Android devices

Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (but not TAP) kernel module. Prior to 4.0, VPN software required rooted Android.

Android 4.0

4.0.1 October 21, 2011

Fixed minor bugs for the Samsung Galaxy Nexus.

4.0.2 November 28, 2011

Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, the US launch of which was later delayed until December 2011. [b]

Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich

Version Release date Features

4.0.3 December 16, 2011 [91]

Numerous bugfixes and optimizations

Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality

New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts provider

Calendar provider enhancements

New camera applications enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution

Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers

[92]

Android 4.0

4.0.4 March 29, 2012 [93]

Stability improvements

Better camera performance

Smoother screen rotation

Improved phone number recognition

[94]

Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API l

Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at

Google I/O conference on June 27, 2012. Base on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvem involved “Project Butter”, which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering , extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to creat fluid and “buttery-smooth” UI.[95] Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on July 9, 2012, [96] and the Ne 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on July 13, 2012.

Version Release date Features

4.1 July 9, 2012

Smoother user interface:

Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh

Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline

CPU input boost

Synchronizing touch to vsync timing

Enhanced

accessibility

Bi-directional text and other language support

User-installable keyboard maps

Expandable notifications

Ability to turn off notifications on an application-specific basis

Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens

Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam

Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones. [97]

Improved camera application

Multichannel audio [95]

The

Fraunhofer FDK AAC codec becomes standard in Android, adding AAC 5.1 channel encoding/decoding

USB audio (for external sound DACs)

[95]

Audio chaining (also known as

gapless playback )[95]

[98][99]

Ability for other launchers to add widgets from the application drawer without requiring root access

Android 4.

4.1.1 July 11, 2012 [100]

Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application

4.1.2 October 9, 2012 [101]

Lock/home screen rotation support for the Nexus 7 [102]

One-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications

[103]

Bugfixes and performance enhancements

Android 4.2 Jelly Bean (API l

Google was expected to announce Jelly Bean 4 at an event in New York City on October 29, 20 but the event was cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy .[104] Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with press release, under the slogan “A new flavor o Jelly Bean”. Jelly Bean 4.2 was based on Linux kernel 3.4.0, and debuted on Google’s Nexus 4 and Nexus 10 , which were released on Novem 13, 2012. [105][106]

Version Release date Features

4.2 November 13, 2012 [107]

Lock screen improvements, including widget support and the ability to swipe directly to camera

[108]

Notification power controls (“Quick Settings”)

“Daydream”

screensavers , showing information when idle or docked

Multiple user accounts (tablets only)

Rewritten

Bluetooth stack , switching from

Bluez to

Broadcom open source

BlueDroid,

[109] allowing improved support for multiple displays and wireless display ( Miracast )

Native right-to-left , always-on VPN and application verification.

[110] A new

NFC stack was added at the same time. [109]

Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users

New clock application with built-in world clock, stop watch and timer

All devices now use the same interface layout, previously adapted from phones on 4.1 for smaller tablets (with centered software buttons, the system bar at the top of the screen, and a home screen with a dock and centered application menu), regardless of screen size

Increased number of extended notifications and Actionable Notifications for more applications, allowing users to respond to certain notifications within the notification bar and without launching the application directly

SELinux

Premium

SMS confirmation

[111]

Group Messaging

Android 4.2

4.2.1 November 27, 2012 [112]

Fixed a bug in the People application where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact [113]

Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported HID (Human interface device)

4.2.2 February 11, 2013 [114]

Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs [115]

Long-pressing the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth icons in Quick Settings now toggles the on/off state

New download notifications, which now shows the percentage and estimated time remaining for active application downloads

New sounds for wireless charging and low battery

New Gallery application animation allows faster loading

USB debug whitelist

Bugfixes and performance enhancements

Android 4.3 Jelly Bean (API l

Google released Jelly Bean 4.3 under the sloga “An even sweeter Jelly Bean” on July 24, 2013, during an event in San Francisco called “Breakf with Sundar Pichai “. Most Nexus devices recei the update within a week, although the secondgeneration Nexus 7 tablet was the first device t officially ship with it. [116] A minor bugfix updat was released on August 22, 2013. [117]

Version Release date Features

4.3 July 24, 2013 [118]

Bluetooth low energy support [119]

Bluetooth Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) 1.3 support

OpenGL ES 3.0 support, allowing for improved game graphics

[119]

Restricted access mode for new user profiles [119]

Filesystem write performance improvement by running

fstrim command while device is idle [120]

Dial pad auto-complete in the Phone application

[119]

Volume for incoming calls (ringtone) and notification alerts is no longer adjustable separately

Improvements to Photo Sphere [121]

Reworked camera UI, previously introduced on Google Play edition phones

[122]

Addition of ” App Ops “, a fine-grained application permissions control system (hidden by default) [123]

SELinux enabled by default

4K resolution support [124]

Numerous security updates, performance enhancements, and bugfixes

[125]

System-level support for

geofencing and Wi-Fi scanning APIs

Background Wi-Fi location still runs even when Wi-Fi is turned off

Developer logging and analyzing enhancements

Added support for five more languages

Changed

digital rights management (DRM) APIs

Right-to-left (RTL) languages now supported [119]

Clock in the status bar disappears if clock is selected as lockscreen widget

Native emoji support [126]

Android 4.3

4.3.1 October 3, 2013 [127]

Bugfixes and small tweaks for the Nexus 7 LTE

[128]

Android 4.4 KitKat (API lev

Google announced Android 4.4 KitKat on September 3, 2013. Although initially under the “Key Lime Pie” (“KLP”) codename, the name wa changed because “very few people actually kn the taste of a key lime pie .” [129] Some technol bloggers also expected the “Key Lime Pie” rele to be Android 5. [130] KitKat debuted on Googl

Nexus 5 on October 31, 2013, and was optimiz to run on a greater range of devices than earlie Android versions, having 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum; those improvements were known as “Project Svelte” internally at Google.[131] The required minimum amount of RAM available to Android is 340 MB, and all devices with less than 512 MB of RAM must report themselves as “low RAM” devices. [132]

Version Release date Features

4.4 October 31, 2013 [133]

[134]

Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue

Clock no longer shows bold hours; all digits are thin. The H, M, and S markings for the stopwatch and timer have been removed, leaving just the numbers.

Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars

[135]

Ability for applications to use “immersive mode” to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction

[136]

Action overflow menu buttons are always visible, even on devices with a “Menu” key, which was officially deprecated by Android 4.0.

[137]

Restriction for applications when accessing external storage, except for their own directories

Optimizations for performance on devices with lower specifications, including zRAM support and “low RAM” device API

[131]

Wireless printing capability [131]

NFC host card emulation , enabling a device to replace smart cards [131]

WebViews now based on

Chromium engine (feature parity with

Chrome for Android 30)

Expanded functionality for notification listener services [131]

Public API for developing and managing

text messaging clients[138]

Storage Access Framework, an API allowing apps to retrieve files in a consistent manner. As part of the framework, a new system file picker allows users to access files from various sources (including those exposed by apps, such as online storage services). [70]

New framework for UI transitions

Sensor batching, step detector and counter APIs

[131]

Settings application now makes it possible to select default text messaging and home (launcher) application

Audio tunneling, audio monitoring and loudness enhancer [139]

Built-in screen recording feature (primarily for developers, as usage of ADB is required)

[140]

Native

infrared blaster API

Verified boot

Enforcing

SELinux

Expanded accessibility APIs and system-level

closed captioning settings

Android Runtime (ART) introduced as a new experimental application

runtime environment, not enabled by default, as a replacement for the Dalvik virtual machine

[141]

Bluetooth Message Access Profile (MAP) support

[142]

Disabled access to battery statistics by third-party applications

[143]

Settings application no longer uses a multi-pane layout on devices with larger screens

Wi-Fi and mobile data activity (TX/RX) indicators are moved to quick settings

[144]

Disables text wrapping in the WebView browser component

[145]

Android 4.

4.4.1 December 5, 2013 [146]

Improvements to auto focus, white balance and HDR+ for the Nexus 5 camera [147]

[148]

Better application compatibility for the experimental Android Runtime (ART)

Camera application now loads Google+ Photos instead of Gallery when swiping away from the camera view

Miscellaneous improvements and bugfixes

4.4.2 December 9, 2013 [149]

Further security enhancements and bugfixes

Removal of the “App Ops ” application permissions control system, introduced in Android 4.3 [150]

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